Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 32

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::clean() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 33

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 463

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 464

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 465

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 466

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 467

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 468

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 35

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 38

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 39

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 47

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 50

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 53

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 54

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 58

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getApplication() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/index.php on line 31

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class JObject in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/base/object.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplication::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplicationHelper::getClientInfo() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 132

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getRouter() should be compatible with & JApplication::getRouter($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/inlondon/public_html/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getPathWay() should be compatible with & JApplication::getPathway($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/inlondon/public_html/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getMenu() should be compatible with & JApplication::getMenu($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/inlondon/public_html/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSession::set() should be compatible with JObject::set($property, $value = NULL) in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 737

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cookie - headers already sent by (output started at /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 423

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cache limiter - headers already sent (output started at /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 423

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 426

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/parameter.php on line 21

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JRegistryFormatINI::objectToString() should be compatible with JRegistryFormat::objectToString(&$object) in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/format/ini.php on line 281

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::importPlugin() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/index.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 92

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class JPlugin in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/plugin.php on line 75

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JEvent::update() should be compatible with JObserver::update() in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/event/event.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDispatcher::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 140

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::getPlugin() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 147

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDispatcher::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 140

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::getPlugin() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 147

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDispatcher::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 140

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::getPlugin() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 147

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

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Reggae and Ska music was created in Jamaica, but found a wider audience in London with the creation of record labels like Island and Trojan. 2 Tone Ska was a fusion of Jamaican rhythms with Punk sentiment and lyrics
Home London Music Venues Reggae & Ska History

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Ska and Reggae in London

(11 votes, average 4.82 out of 5)

History of Ska and Reggae

Ska originated in Jamaica after increased exposure to American music on the radio. Lord Creator - enjoyed a reversal of fortune when UB40 released a version of his peerless 'Kingston Town'. Many sought out the original and both sides benefittedThe widespread availability of transistor radios in the Caribbean was due to troops demobbed after the Second World, War bringing them back from Europe. By the early 1950s Jamaican bands were taking inspiration from Jazz, R&B and Mento (a form of calypso). These influences were merged into a new style, called Shuffle - the grandfather of Ska.

 

Somewhere between Ska and Reggae sits 'Rocksteady', which took its name from a popular dance. Young country boys and girls arriving in Kingston in 1966 took up the movement and became self-styled 'Rude Boys' (and girls), with artists such as The Paragons (featuring a young John Holt) and The Maytals (with the equally young Frederick "Toots" Hibbert). Jamaican producers were emigrating to the UK and Canada and had access to a much wider range of equipment. The sound changed and the political nature of Rastafari culture began to take stronger root with the Jamaican people. So Rocksteady was short-lived, but was later revived by some elements in the Seventies and early Eighties British Ska movement.

 

In 1962, Cecil Bustamente Campbell, AKA Prince Buster, along with guitarist Jah Jerry introduced an emphasis on the offbeat, instead of the downbeat and Ska music came kicking and screaming into the world. Reggae grew alongside, with a lament-style of chanting and used the same syncopated beat as Ska. Reggae was also part musical movement, part political movement and part full-blown religion. "Rastafarians" were an African faith, revived by leaders such as Marcus Garvey who preached a return to the mother Africa: the roots of both music and his people. African Nyah-bingi drumming style (the heartbeat pounding) was increasingly adopted and the role of bass and guitar was switched around. The bass runs providing the lead and the guitar covered the background beat, in a hiccup pattern. Many Rocksteady practitioners were absorbed into the Reggae scene, so there was no neat transition from one style to the next, or any specific date when it occurred.

 

King Tubby, pioneered and popularised the trend of adding an instumental version of the track to the B-side, popular in the Dancehall clubs. The style became Dub and is still going strong in many forms including the current 'Dubstep'In the late 70s the influence of The Clash, who fused Reggae forms with punk, from their native Brixton - grew steadily and crossed over into the mainstream. At the same time there was a surge of interest in Ska amongst white youth-audiences. Musicians and producers came over to the UK from Jamaica, where they found both a hungry audience and a stepping stone to global exposure for their artists: Bob Marley & the Wailers, Black Uhuru, Dennis Brown, Burning Spear, Third World as well as home-grown UK bands such as Aswad and Steel Pulse featured in the Top 40, and acts such as Eddy Grant, UB40 and Musical Youth became household names after featuring on Top of the Pops.

 

The Ska and Reggae Scene in London

The independent label, Island Records, run by Chris Blackwell - distributed Jamaican records in London throughout the 1960s (from the boot of his car), but Reggae really took off outside the Jamaican community when Prince Buster's Al Capone started a dance craze in 1967. White, working-class skinheads adopted the music as a reaction to Hippy, peace and love - which didn't speak for them. Do The Reggay by Toots and the Maytals, in 1968, was the record that gave the music its name.

In 1967 Island Records set up the label Trojan as an outlet for the productions of Duke Reid. Trojan Records were set up to promote the talents of producer Duke Reid. They were the first label in London and the UK to enjoy mainstream Reggae chart success and still pump out new artists and winning compilations todayThe name came from the seven ton Leyland Trojan trucks that were used to transport the producer's huge sound system around Jamaica - 'Duke Reid, The Trojan King Of Sounds' was painted on the back of the trucks.

In 1969, Trojan enjoyed their first UK chart success, when Tony Tribe's version of Neil Diamond's - Red Red Wine - peaked in the high forties. Later that year The Upsetters reached number five with, Return Of Django. Trojan made the top ten again with Jimmy Cliff's - Wonderful World, Beautiful People - and the Harry J All Stars', Liquidator (still the theme tune for cricket coverage in the UK after 40 years). The following year Dave Barker and Ansel Collins took the first Reggae UK number one spot, with Double Barrel.

 


Ska and 2 Tone

2 Tone Ska from the late 1970s was a fusion of Jamaican ska rhythm and melody, blended with punk's 'kitchen sink' lyrics; speeded-up Jamaican ska with dole-queue attitude. 2 Tone was the label created by Jerry Dammers from the Specials and in addition to the music, the fashion was revived too.

The 2 Tone movement promoted racial unity at a time when racial tensions in the UK were at an all-time high; a tipping point which resulted in rioting throughout Britain's largest cities, including Handsworth in Birmingham, Toxteth in Liverpool, St. Paul's in Bristol and Brixton in London. Most 2 Tone bands had multiracial lineups, including The Beat, The Specials, and The Selecter. The first number one single of the 1980s was "Too much, too young" by The Specials and was indicative of the decade to come. Different thinking, different values and more choice; was what younger people wanted. In hindsight it's easy to dismiss the Eighties as yuppies with big hair, but it was more a period of self-expression, than a time to acquire property and possessions. It just depends where you're looking.

 


London & Music Fusion

One facet of London which can only be experienced, rather than seen is its diversity, especially in terms of music. Reggae and Ska are The Beat were part of the 2 Tone stable in the UK (see below - Mirror in the Bathroom). Bands were multicultural and had great crossover appeal - you didn't have to be a nouveau-Mod or Rude Boy to buy their recordsinseparably linked to race struggles in London and the UK, but in a wholly positive manner. As a former Kingston resident (not 'upon-Thames', the other one) I believe that when the first Jamaicans arrived in London on the Empire Windrush, they found a country barely holding itself together after the Second World War. Racial hatred is easier to stir up when a population struggles to put food on the table - it's line one of the agitator's handbook. With music, literature, food, and subsequent generations growing-up together in Britain, pointing out cultural differences becomes harder. Division is a more difficult prospect, when experiences are mutual.

The Ska and Reggae artists of the Sixties and Seventies and 2 Tone groups of the Eighties had a far-reaching impact on white, youth-culture and caused a generation to break away from the Enoch-Powell-fuelled fears of their parents. Problems still persist - but using art-forms such as Ska or Reggae to make a positive impression on young people, is a more effective and lasting form of persuasion than bald statement or rhetoric. There has been later criticism about white Ska bands plundering the Jamaican back-catalogue, but some like Lord Creator escaped a life on the street, bought a house and was able to tour again through royalties from UB40's chart success. So, despite evidence to the contrary from the 2 Tone logo, the arguments, hopes and views are anything but black and white.

 

 

Bredda Gravalicious - Wailing Souls. Roots reggae class and what a vid to make you dizzy.

 

 

Night Nurse - Gregory Isaacs. Live from Sunsplash '83, Jarrett Park, Mo' Bay.

 

  

Message to you Rudy - The Specials. Live - The Old Grey Whistle Test, 1979

 

 

(All video is streamed from YouTube, not hosted. If you're a copyright owner and object, please inform the site and the link will be removed. Links to purchase MP3s by the featured artists are below. i.e. The purpose of featuring is promotional, as is the article. Thanks.)

 

To buy The Beat, The Specials and similar from Amazon

To buy Gregory Isaacs on Amazon:

To buy Wailing Souls on Amazon:

 

If you want to catch some Reggae or Ska  while you're in town (or on the Internet before you arrive), you could do a lot worse than visit this London based Reggae radio station:

You can pick up community and pirate radio on FM while in London, just twiddle the dial. Lightning FM from Brixton is on 90.8 FM and the Internet - a good place to start.

For Reggae, Ska and Dub in London on now, check here  - and select 'Reggae, Ska & Dub'.

 

 

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