Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 32

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::clean() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 33

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 463

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 464

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 465

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 466

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 467

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 468

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 35

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 38

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 39

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 47

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 50

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 53

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 54

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 58

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getApplication() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/index.php on line 31

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class JObject in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/base/object.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplication::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplicationHelper::getClientInfo() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 132

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getRouter() should be compatible with & JApplication::getRouter($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/inlondon/public_html/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getPathWay() should be compatible with & JApplication::getPathway($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/inlondon/public_html/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getMenu() should be compatible with & JApplication::getMenu($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/inlondon/public_html/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSession::set() should be compatible with JObject::set($property, $value = NULL) in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 737

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cookie - headers already sent by (output started at /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 423

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cache limiter - headers already sent (output started at /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 423

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 426

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/parameter.php on line 21

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JRegistryFormatINI::objectToString() should be compatible with JRegistryFormat::objectToString(&$object) in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/format/ini.php on line 281

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::importPlugin() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/index.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 92

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class JPlugin in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/plugin.php on line 75

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JEvent::update() should be compatible with JObserver::update() in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/event/event.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDispatcher::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 140

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::getPlugin() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 147

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDispatcher::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 140

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::getPlugin() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 147

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDispatcher::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 140

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::getPlugin() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 147

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDispatcher::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 140

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::getPlugin() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 147

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDispatcher::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 140

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::getPlugin() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 147

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDispatcher::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 140

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::getPlugin() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 147

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/cache/cache.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JCacheStorage::get() should be compatible with JObject::get($property, $default = NULL) in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/cache/storage.php on line 173

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getInt() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/index.php on line 55

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 179

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 134

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/document.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JDocumentHTML::setBuffer() should be compatible with JDocument::setBuffer($content) in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/html.php on line 394

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getApplication() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/components/com_jcomments/jcomments.class.php on line 1398

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getCache() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/components/com_jcomments/jcomments.class.php on line 1645

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 192

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JCache::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JCacheCallback::get() should be compatible with JCache::get($id, $group = NULL) in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/cache/handler/callback.php on line 133

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getDBO() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/components/com_jcomments/jcomments.class.php on line 1623

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getApplication() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/components/com_jcomments/jcomments.class.php on line 1398

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JURI::root() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/components/com_jcomments/helpers/system.php on line 58

Strict Standards: Non-static method JURI::base() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/uri.php on line 276

Strict Standards: Non-static method JURI::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/uri.php on line 276

Strict Standards: Non-static method JURI::root() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/components/com_jcomments/helpers/system.php on line 62

Strict Standards: Non-static method JURI::root() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/components/com_jcomments/helpers/system.php on line 28

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getCmd() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/index.php on line 67

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 255

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 134

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JURI::base() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/plugins/system/JCH_Optimize.php on line 474

Strict Standards: Non-static method JURI::base() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/plugins/system/JCH_Optimize.php on line 475

Strict Standards: Only variables should be passed by reference in /home/inlondon/public_html/plugins/system/JCH_Optimize.php on line 439

Strict Standards: Non-static method JURI::base() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/plugins/system/JCH_Optimize.php on line 474

Strict Standards: Non-static method JURI::base() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/plugins/system/JCH_Optimize.php on line 475

Strict Standards: Only variables should be passed by reference in /home/inlondon/public_html/plugins/system/JCH_Optimize.php on line 439

Strict Standards: Non-static method JURI::base() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/plugins/system/JCH_Optimize.php on line 474

Strict Standards: Non-static method JURI::base() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/plugins/system/JCH_Optimize.php on line 475

Strict Standards: Only variables should be passed by reference in /home/inlondon/public_html/plugins/system/JCH_Optimize.php on line 439
Victorian and Gothic London in the 19th Century
Home London History Victorian London

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of ContentController::display() should be compatible with JController::display($cachable = false) in /home/inlondon/public_html/components/com_content/controller.php on line 28

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: call_user_func_array() expects parameter 1 to be a valid callback, non-static method JHTMLBehavior::caption() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/html.php on line 91

Strict Standards: Non-static method JHTML::script() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/html/behavior.php on line 63

Strict Standards: Non-static method JHTML::_() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/html.php on line 172

Strict Standards: call_user_func_array() expects parameter 1 to be a valid callback, non-static method JHTMLBehavior::mootools() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/html.php on line 91

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/html/behavior.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JHTML::script() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/html/behavior.php on line 56

Strict Standards: Non-static method JURI::root() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/html.php on line 176

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getDocument() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/html.php on line 179

Strict Standards: Non-static method JURI::root() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/html.php on line 176

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getDocument() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/html.php on line 179

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JCacheView::get() should be compatible with JCache::get($id, $group = NULL) in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/cache/handler/view.php on line 150

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JSite::getMenu() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/components/com_content/router.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplication::getMenu() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/includes/application.php on line 345

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JMenu::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 720

Strict Standards: Non-static method JError::isError() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 721

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/inlondon/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Victorian London

The Victorian era in the United Kingdom was the period when Queen Victoria was on the throne, from June 1837 to January 1901. Queen Victoria: One is not amused. This was an extended period of prosperity for the British people, as profits gained from the overseas British Empire, as well as from industrial improvements at home, allowed a large, educated middle class to develop. Some historians extend the beginning of the period back five years to the passage of the Reform Act 1832, but not me. That's William IVth and he's not Victoria.

 


The Victorian era is also characterised by a long period of peace, known as the Pax Britannica, and economic, colonial, and industrial improvements, temporarily disrupted by the Crimean War. Though Britain was actually at war every year during this period. Towards the end of the century, the political climate was increasingly liberal with a widening of the voting franchise.

 


Effigies atop the Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens representing the virtues with gilded angels above.The population of England almost doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901. Ireland’s population halved during a similar period. At the same time around 15 million emigrants left the United Kingdom in the Victorian era and settled mostly in the United States, Canada and Australia.

Engineering

The Victorian city of London was full of startling contrasts. New building and affluent development went hand in hand with acutely overcrowded slums where people lived in conditions scarcely imaginable. The population surged during the 19th century, from about 1 million in 1800 to over 6 million a century later. This growth far exceeded London's ability to look after the basic needs of its citizens.



A combination of coal-fired stoves and poor sanitation made the air heavy and foul-smelling. Unprecedented volumes of raw sewage were dumped into the Thames River. Even royals were not immune from the stench of London - when Queen Victoria occupied Buckingham Palace her apartments were ventilated through the common sewers, a fact that was not disclosed at the time.

 


The engineer Joseph Bazalgette came to the rescue. Bazalgette was responsible for the building of over 1300 miles of tunnels and pipes to divert sewage outside the city. Victoria's Statue: at the entrance to Blackfriars Bridge, to whom the bridge is dedicated.This had a drastic impact on the death rate, and outbreaks of cholera dropped dramatically after Bazlgette's work was finished. For an encore, Bazalgette also designed the Embankment, and the Battersea, Hammersmith, and Albert Bridges. During the same period London's water supply network was improved, and a gas network for lighting and heating was introduced in the 1880s.


In 1829 Sir Robert Peel founded the Metropolitan Police to handle law and order in areas outside the main City. These police became known as "Bobbies" after their founder. Just behind Buckingham Palace the Grosvenor family developed the aristocratic Belgrave Square. In 1830 land just east of the palace was cleared of the royal stables to create Trafalgar Square, and the new National Gallery was built just two years later.



The early part of the 19th century was the golden age of steam. The first railway in London ran between London Bridge and Greenwich and was built in 1836 - a great railway boom followed. Major stations were constructed at Euston (1837), Paddington (1838), Fenchurch Street (1841), Waterloo (1848), and King's Cross (1850).


Big Ben

In 1834 the Houses of Parliament at Westminster Palace burned to the ground. They were gradually replaced by the Gothic-Revival Houses of Parliament designed by Charles Barry and A.W. Pugin. These buildings are still collectively referred to as the 'Palace of Westminster'.


Westminster Palace: replaced the previous medieval palace which was destroyed by fire, except for the Jewel Tower.The 'Clock Tower' of the Houses of Parliament, known erroneously as Big Ben, was built in 1859, after completion of the House of Lords and House of Commons. The origin of the name Big Ben is disputed, but there's no argument that the moniker refers to the tower's largest bell, and not the clock itself. However, pedants aside, everyone know's what you mean if you're referring to the clock as Big Ben. Pugin is credited with the design of the Clock Tower (though he died 8 years before its completion) and the palace interiors with Barry responsible for the rest, however many disagree. What is clear is that the stress of building the palace cost them both their lives. Pugin was admitted to an asylum ('Bedlam' in Lambeth, currently the home of the Imperial War Museum) and was released a few days before he died from a stroke at only 40 years of age. Barry died a year after the Clock Tower housing Big Ben was opened, aged 65.



Prince Albert, consort of Queen Victoria was largely responsible for one of the defining moments of the era that bears his wife's name; The Great Exhibition of 1851. The first 'world's fair', a showcase of technology and manufacturing from countries all over the globe. The exhibition was held in Hyde Park, and the centerpiece was Joseph Paxton's revolutionary iron and glass hall, dubbed the "Crystal Palace". It was an immense success, with over 200,000 attendees. After the event, the Crystal Palace was moved to Sydenham, in South London, where it stayed until it was destroyed by fire in 1936. The proceeds from the Great Exhibition went towards the founding of two new permanent displays, which became the Science Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum.

Embankment lamp embellishments, with the Clock Tower of Westminster Palace behind.

 

The year 1863 saw the completion of the very first underground railway (Tube) in London, from Paddington to Farringdon Road. The project was so successful that other lines soon followed. But the expansion of transport was not limited to dry land. As the hub of the British Empire, the Thames was thick with ships from all the world's ports, and London had more shipyards than any other country.


For all the economic expansion of the Industrial Revolution, living conditions among London's poor were appalling. Children as young as 5 were often set to work begging or sweeping chimneys. Campaigners like Charles Dickens did much to highlight the plight of the poor in London, to the literate classes with his novels. In 1870 those efforts bore some fruit with the passage of laws providing compulsory education for children between the ages of 5 and 12.

 

 

 

Queen Victoria's Funeral in 1901

 

 

 



Add this page to your favorite Social Bookmarking websites
 
 

Add comment


Security code
Refresh

Late Rooms
About                                          Contact                                          Terms & Conditions                                          Site Map                                          Advertise                                          Copyright